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World

AFP
July 14, 2018

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Fake news: the media industry strikes back

WASHINGTON: The viral spread of hoaxes and misinformation ahead of the US election and Brexit referendum two years ago was a wake-up call for many established news media, who have gone on the offensive to shore up their credibility and help filter out fake news. Major media organizations, often in partnership with big technology and social media firms, have stepped up fact-checking and other steps to support fact-based journalism.

But these efforts have been complicated by unrelenting attacks on the media by US President Donald Trump and others who tend to label any unfavorable coverage “fake news.” - The ´gatekeeper´ role - Fake news is as old as journalism itself, and reputable media organizations have often played a role of “gatekeeper” to reliable information. This role has been fundamentally challenged in the fast-moving internet age when rumors and false information can become viral, sometimes with tragic results. In one chilling example in India, a WhatsApp rumor warning that 300 people had descended on Gujarat looking to abduct and sell children has triggered deadly mob attacks. Social media “has made things much worse,” because it “offers an easy route for non-journalists to bypass journalism´s gatekeepers, so that anyone can ´publish´ anything, however biased, inaccurate or fabricated,” says John Huxford, an Illinois State University journalism professor. “Journalism´s role as the ´gatekeeper´ of what is and isn´t news has always been controversial, of course. But we´re now seeing just how bad things can get when that function breaks down.” Internet firms, after initial reluctance to define themselves as “media,” have stepped up efforts to identify false news and to “curate” stories from “trusted” news sources. “Technology companies including Apple, Google, Snapchat, Twitter, and, above all, Facebook have taken on most of the functions of news organizations, becoming key players in the news ecosystem, whether they wanted that role or not,” said a March 2018 report by Columbia University´s Tow Center for Digital Journalism.

Numerous studies have shown that fake news — often more sensational than genuine information — spreads faster online because of how social media has prioritized “virality.”

“False political news traveled deeper and more broadly, reached more people, and was more viral than any other category of false information,” said a report this year from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The MIT researchers examined 126,000 rumors spread by three million people, and found that false news reached more people than the truth. “Analysis found that it took the truth approximately six times as long as falsehood to reach 1,500 people,” the researchers said.

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