Razia Sultana was the daughter of Shamsudin Iltutmish, a Mamluk slave who rose to be the third and greatest sultan of the Muslim Slave Dynasty in Delhi. Her mother was the daughter of Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the Sultan of Delhi. After 26 years in power, Iltutmish designated his daughter, Razia as his successor, realizing that his two sons by other wives were both feeble minded. He was extremely proud of his daughter.
She was named Manikarnika Tambe by her father, Moropant Tambe.
Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), the first female ruler of China, was one of the most important women in history. She modernized the socio-political system, advocated women's rights, and ruled the toughest empires of the world for 47 years with intelligence and strength.
The people of Limpopo pride themselves on the Modjadji dynasty, which remains the only royal house in Africa where a woman reigns supreme as a queen, with supernatural powers capable of making rain. Like other queens in the dynasty, Makobo Modjadji VI also got the title of Rain Queen; on the day of her coronation, it rained lightly which was considered as a good omen. But her reign was short-lived and she died under mysterious circumstances at the age of 27.
Kösem Sultan (1589-1651), after the death of her husband Sultan Ahmed I, exercised power through her mentally challenged brother-in-law, Mustafa I, her son Murad IV when he was made Sultan at the age of 11, and then through her grandson Mehmed IV who was just six-years-old. But Mehmed’s mother, Turhan Sultan, gave her a tough time and before she could do anything about it Turhan got her killed.
Tangena was a poisonous nut grown in Madagascar that would cause people to vomit if eaten. According to the tradition, it was used on the island to determine the guilt or innocence of the suspect. But Ranavalona I took it to the next level by forcing the suspects to eat three pieces of chicken skin, and then vomit up all three of them to show their innocence.
Al-Kufi pilgrimage route, also known as Darb Zubaidah, stretched for over 1,400 km in the Kingdom. In the following centuries, the trail lost its importance and was almost completely abandoned by the pilgrims and travelers.
The Great Mosque of Kufa was constructed in the 7th century; the Ziggurat of Ur is a Neo-Sumerian structure; the fortress of Al-Ukhaidir was constructed by Abbasid caliph As-Saffah’s nephew Isa ibn Musa.
Augustus founded his reign on the defeat of Cleopatra. When he had the chance to have a month named in his own honour, instead of choosing September – the month of his birth – he chose the eighth month, in which Cleopatra died, to create a yearly reminder of her defeat.