Impact of climate change: November 1.2°C warmer than average

December 07, 2022

LAHORE: After recent devastating floods, the country witnessed another impact of climate change in November with the month 1.22°C warmer than average national mean monthly temperature.

Besides rise in temperature, November, which has been a less-average rainy month contributing about 19.5% and 1.7% to the post-monsoon and annual rainfall respectively, witnessed an increase of +145% in rainfall.

Deviation in the rainy patron has changed November 2022 to be a largely above average rainfall month and 8th highest rainfall in past 62 years, whereas record is 31.4mm in 2019 for Pakistan with 12.7mm area-weighted rain against 5.2mm monthly average.

Data collected from Met office revealed warmer than average temperatures were observed in the country in November. The month was 1.22°C warmer than average with national mean monthly temperature of 18.86 °C against the average 17.63°C.

Similarly, on regional scale, Balochistan with 19.56 °C (+1.99 °C), Sindh 24.26°C (+1.44°C) and Punjab 20.05°C (+0.91°C) recorded warmer than average temperatures. AJK with 11.06 (-0.59°C), GB 7.66°C (-0.47°C) and KP 14.79°C (-0.14°C) recorded cooler than average temperature.

November 2022 mean maximum (daytime) temperature of 26.07°C recorded at country level being +0.14°C, slightly warmer than average of 25.93°C, data revealed. Average night (minimum) temperature of 11.65°C was +2.32°C, warmer than the country-average of 9.33°C, during the month.

The mean temperature anomalies of November range between -2.04°C to +3.2°C in the country. The mean minimum temperature anomalies were -2.7°C to +5.5°C with minimum temperature anomalies over upper Sindh, South Punjab and central parts of Balochistan considerably higher.

As per data, the hottest day of the month was at Mithi (Sindh) when it recorded 40.5°C temperature on November 2 which has also been the warmest place with 35.2°C average maximum temperature during the month. Skardu recorded month’s coldest temperature (-8.0°C) on November 24 and incidentally has also been the coolest place with -2.2°C average minimum temperature.

Data revealed national rainfall for the month of November was largely above average (+145%). November witnessed three light to moderate rain spells in Punjab and four in KP &GB/AJK. Two light rain spells were observed in Balochistan, while lower Sindh had only one-day light rain.

Situation was almost similar on regional scale. Balochistan (7.4mm/189%), Punjab (11.2/167%), KP (43.3mm/146%), GB (9.8mm/127%) and AJK (49.9mm/126%) all witnessed largely above average rainfall, while Sindh with (0.9mm/-45%) was the only region recording below-average rainfall during the month.

The wettest day of the month in the country was November 8 when Panjgur (Balochistan) recorded 44mm rainfall and set up a new record of heaviest rainfall in 24 hours and wettest month at the station, while Kalam proved to be wettest place with a total of 132.4mm rain.

Other significant monthly-total rains were at Murree (95mm), Garhi Dupatta (77.8mm), Muzaffarabad Airport (100.8mm), Muzaffarabad City (79.6mm), Rawalakot (101.5mm), Balakot (100.0mm), Dir (91mm), Malam Jabba (91mm) and Pattan (130.5mm). Kot Addu, Rahim Yar Khan, Badin, Chhor, Hyderabad, Jacobabad, Larkana, Mithi, Benazirabad, Padidan, Rohri, Sukkur, Moenjo Daro, Dadu, Mirpurkhas, Tando Jam, Sakrand, Khairpur, Barkhan, Gwadar, Jiwani, Nokkundi and Pasni remained dry with no rain during the month.